Posts in Law

Apakah Tiongkok memang tidak butuh demokrasi?

“China is a sleeping lion. Let her sleep, for when she wakes she will shake the world.” Napoleon Bonaparte


Tiongkok merupakan pendatang baru pada abad ke-21 yang menempati posisi dominan dalam politik ekonomi internasional. Beberapa pakar mengatakan bahwa kemunculan abad Asia ditandai dengan laju pertumbuhan ekonomi Tiongkok dan India yang akan menyumbang GDP terbesar bersama Amerika Serikat pada pertengahan abad ke-21 nanti.

Kehadiran Tiongkok tidak terlepas dari transformasi politik ekonomi domestiknya. Beberapa pakar mengklaim bahwa Tiongkok adalah negara berperadaban, daripada klaim sebagai negara bangsa, yang sudah tumbuh dan berkembang sejak peradaban Lao Tzu. Sistem tersebut terus dilestarikan oleh generasi muda Tiongkok, terlepas dari kemunculan komunisme hingga revolusi budaya pada abad ke-20.

Sejak Periode Deng Xiaoping, Tiongkok telah melakukan rangkaian reformasi ekonomi. Sekaligus, pada masa ini adalah awal dari Tiongkok mencoba menggabungkan sistem ekonomi sentralistik bersama kapitalisme sebagai masa depan sistem di negaranya. Sejak liberalisasi diperkenalkan, Tiongkok mengalami pertumbuhan ekonomi yang signifikan. Hasilnya, Tiongkok diklalim telah membuka lapangan pekerjaab bagi 500 juta warganya. Dalam beberapa aspek, saat ini, Tiongkok diklaim memiliki ekonomi terbesar di dunia.

Namun demikian, setidaknya terdapat tiga permasalahan utama yang belum terselesaikan oleh Tiongkok hingga saat ini. Tiongkok harus berjuang untuk mengatasi tingginya risiko lingkungan, seperti polusi sebagai hasil dari industrialisasi. Korupsi juga masih merajalela dalam aktivitas pemerintahan. Selain itu, permasalahan hak asasi manusia dan politik yang represif juga menjadi kritik terhadap ada tidaknya demokrasi di Tiongkok. Sebaliknya, Pemerintah Tiongkok bangga dengan sistem yang diklaim telah berdiri sejak 2000 tahun lamanya; dalam politik kontemporer, sistem ini disebut dengan istilah meritokrasi.

Beberapa pakar kajian Tiongkok seperti Daniel A. Bell, misalnya, beranggapan meritokrasi adalah sistem yang paling relevan bagi Tiongkok saat ini. Menurut Daniel, demokrasi dianggap terlalu mewah dan mahal hingga masyarakat Tiongkok memiliki tingkat pendidikan yang tinggi dan mencapai kesejahteraan ekonominya. Selengkapnya silakan baca buku karya Daniel A. Bell berjudul, “The China Model: Political Meritocracy and the Limits of Democracy” (download di sini).

Diskusi lebih lanjut tentang ini, silakan menyaksikan Seri Head to Head pada Channel Al Jazeera yang menghadirkan Profesor Zhang Weiwei, penulis buku best seller berjudul “The China Wave: The Rise of A Civilizational State”, dari Fudan University (download di sini). Zhang Weiwei mengemukakan bahwa Tiongkok tidak membutuhkan dan tidak menginginkan adanya demokrasi di negaranya. Zhang Weiwei melakukan perbandingan antara Tiongkok dan India yang keduanya memulai pembangunan negara pada level yang sama namun keduanya saat ini mencapai pertumbuhan ekonomi yang berbeda. Zhang menilai unggulnya tingkat pertumbuhan Tiongkok disebabkan oleh orisinalitas sistem Tiongkok, tanpa harus mencontek model demokrasi.

Dalam diskusi ini, dihadirkan tiga pakar sebagai panelis diskusi, antara lain  Dan Wei Lien (novelis yang pernah terlibat dalam protes mahasiswa di Tiananmen Square), Dr. Martin Jacques (Penulis buku When China Rules the World) dan Stephen Chan (Profesor Politik Internasional, SOAS London).

Jadi, kembali pada pertanyaan: apakah memang Tiongkok tidak butuh demokrasi? Mari kita saksikan seri Head to Head berjudul, “Is democracy wrong for China?”

Legal Education: Are we ready for radical reforms?

The first thing we do,“ said the character in Shakespeare’s Henry VI, is “kill all the lawyers.” Lawyers eventually become judges and the Supreme Court did observe that “something is rotten in Allahabad High Court.“ If our lawyers are not committed to justice and morality and our judges do not uphold high constitutional values, legal education is to be blamed and law teachers must be held accountable.

Justice has become a counter-cultural value in the legal profession. It is `justice’ and the goal of attaining a just society which differentiates legal science from other social and human sciences. It is heartening to note that the new HRD Minister has included reforms in legal education in her agenda. India has the largest number of legal professionals in the world (1.3 million). The corporate legal market in India is worth a billion dollars, half of which is shared by foreign law firms. The top 100 Indian companies have spent approximately 600 million dollars last year by way of legal fees. Our legal market is growing fast and we urgently need competent law graduates.

The establishment of national law universities in India has changed the face of legal education in the country. Today, these universities attract the best brains in the country. In fact, law has again become a much sought after course. Students of these law schools have done very well in international moot court competitions. Our students every year defeat students from leading law schools of the world. `We indeed have a few islands of excellence in the sea of mediocrity’, observed former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. Unless reforms are brought in 985 other law colleges, things are not going to change. A handful of national law schools or islands of excellence cannot bring about a radical change. But then, what is the reality of these elitist law schools?

A CAUTION
“The first thing I lost in law school was the reason that I came.“ What a simple and powerful indictment of our national law schools. It is also a caution to those of us who want to practice ethical and justice lawyering. Enthusiastic and bright youngsters come to law school because they want in some way to render help to underprivileged. But the elitist national law schools often dilute the commitment to ethical and social justice lawyering. The undue emphasis on the subtleties of substantive law and many layers of procedure, mostly discussed today through examples from business, does grind down the idealism with which idealist youngsters of 18 years of age first arrived.

The legal profession today pays just lip service to justice, in fact quite eloquent lip service. Money not justice is the essence of our profession. Decades ago, Upendra Baxi Committee raised one of the most basic issues underlying legal education: “In what ways can legal education and knowledge contribute to conditions in which emergence of a just society and state may be assisted? In other words, does legal science and education have any role to play in the task of nation building towards a “just” society?” Human resource in law is not to be perceived just in terms of production of efficient lawyers. We need lawyers who are willing to participate in struggles of rights and justice.

We need to ensure that our law schools are not hijacked by the corporates.

National Law Schools are institutions of excellence like IITs and IIMs. We must ensure the fullest autonomy to them and put a uniform governance structure in place. Just like IITs, their funding should come directly from MHRD. Academicians and not lawyers and judges should take academic decisions. Law school curricula are too stressful and accordingly, the suicide rate is high on these campuses. Efforts need to be made to make it less stressful. Moreover, one uniform curriculum given by the Bar Council of India is not a great idea. Why should a student who wants to practice law in a small town be asked to take courses in International Cyber Law or Mergers & Acquisition Law or Corporate Governance etc. and not given courses in Agricultural Law, Agriculture Finance Law, Forest Law, Tribal law etc? We certainly need an alternative curriculum. N R Madhava Menon did come up with such an alternative curriculum which must be given serious thought.“Legal educators blindly follow the Bar Council-prescribed court-centric curriculum, producing law graduates unfit to serve the justice needs of the tribal and rural communities“, observed Prof Menon.

NEEDED: A FLEXIBLE SYSTEM
In fact, we need to go beyond this. Five-year degree should be allowed to be completed even in four years under a flexible choice-based system credit policy and instead of B A LLB, should be given the nomenclature of simply LLB.National law schools have closed their portals for the people who want to pursue legal education after graduation.All the great judges or eminent lawyers of our country came from a three-year course only. A three-year state of the art LLB course must be introduced to bring real diversity in law schools. We need to open the closed doors of our best law schools for the engineering, medical and other graduates. The creation of a new breed of lawyers depends on the creation of a new teacher. Acute paucity of good teachers is the problem of all law schools. Since best students are in the undergraduate program, LLB should become the eligibility for recruitment as Asst Professor and LLM should be done in service. No teacher should, however, be confirmed without completing LLM.


The author of this article is Professor Faizan Mustafa. He is the Vice-Chancellor of NALSAR University of Law, Hyderabad.

Sumber: Times of India

Revisiting Liberal Democracy and Asian Values in Contemporary Indonesia

This paper has been published in Constitutional Review Vol. 4, No. 1 (2018)


Revisiting Liberal Democracy and Asian Values in Contemporary Indonesia

Muhammad Bahrul Ulum, Nilna Aliyan Hamida (University of Jember, Indonesia)

Abstract
This paper aims to examine the complex and often contentious relationship between constitutionalism and integralism in the Indonesian government and provides a criticism of democratization within the contemporary state. Integralist state portrays the relationship between the state and the people as analogous to a family, with the state as a father and the people as children (the Family Principle). Those that adhere to this view, with regard to contemporary Asian politics, claim that Asian values are inherently integralist, that Asia’s particular history and values different considerably from the West’s, and that Pancasila, Indonesia’s state philosophy, is utilized to establish romanticized relations between the ruler and the ruled. Read More

Sistem Pemerintahan Parlemen Westminster

Sistem Westminster adalah sistem pemerintahan demokratis yang berkiblat pada Inggris (United Kingdom). Sistem ini merupakan rangkaian konvensi dan prosedur dalam menjalankan fungsi legislasi. Sistem ini diterapkan pada negara commnwealth atau negara bekas commnwealth. Sistem ini adalah salah satu dari sistem yang berlaku di seluruh di dunia. Terdapat sistem pemerintahan lain, misalnya adalah sistem yang dipratikkan di beberapa negara Eropa yang prosedurnya cukup berbeda dengan sistem Westminster ini.

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Pancasila dalam Arus Liberalisasi Pangan Pascareformasi

Artikel ini adalah bagian dari book section dalam buku berjudul, “Pancasila dalam Pusaran Globalisasi”. dengan editor Al Khanif, Ph.D., Mirza Satria Buana, Ph.D., dan Manunggal K. Wardaya, LL.M. Buku ini diterbitkan oleh LKiS pada 2017 dan diluncurkan pertama kali oleh Universitas Jember pada 1 Juni 2017.


Pancasila dalam Arus Liberalisasi Pangan Pascareformasi

Muhammad Bahrul Ulum, Fakultas Hukum Universitas Jember

Ringkasan

Artikel ini mendiskusikan kebijakan pangan di Indonesia pascareformasi yang memperhadapkan liberalisasi dan peran negara dalam memastikan terwujudnya kesejahteraan sosial sebagai amanat dari Prinsip kelima Pancasila. Bagian pertama mendiskusikan keberhasilan Soeharto berikut kegagalannya dalam menata kebijakan pangan menjelang era reformasi. Artikel ini juga menyikapi beberapa langkah liberalisasi sektor pertanian melalui Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) dalam kerangka World Trade Organization (WTO). Reformasi Bulog sebagai akibat dari krisis ekonomi 1997 akan menjadi fokus tantangan kebijakan pangan Indonesia pascareformasi. Pada bagian akhir, artikel ini menyediakan urgensi revitalisasi parastatal di bidang pangan di tengah arus liberalisasi ekonomi, dengan fokus pada peran negara dalam bidang ekonomi guna mewujudkan kesejahteraan sosial.

Download artikel ini di sini.

Indonesia’s 72nd Year of the Five Principles

PANCASILA DAY, 1 JUNI 1945-2017
Selamat Hari Pancasila dan tetap berpikir merdeka!

This section is aimed to review a book authored by David Bourchier entitled, “Illiberal Democracy in Indonesia: the Ideology of the Family State.” In short, it is said that the book examines to the extent to which the history of how Pancasila was arbitrarily interpreted and utilised as an ideological means to foster the hegemony of authoritarian government.

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Abstract – LLM Thesis

THE IMPACT OF THE EUROPEAN UNION AS THE MEMBER OF THE WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION ON LEGAL PERSONALITY

Muhammad Bahrul Ulum
LL.M. in International Trade and Economic Law
Osmania University, Hyderabad

ABSTRACT
This thesis analyses the legal personality of the European Union (EU) as the member within the World Trade Organisation (WTO) in which the EU plays a significant role in this organisation in spite of EU Member States’’ membership at the WTO. Theoretical approach is undertaken regarding state and non-state actors in which those distinct entities bring gap in legal scholarship, particularly with respect to the nature of international organisation which is basically different from the nature of state. Read More

Ringkasan Skripsi -Summary of LLB Thesis

Nama Penulis : Muhammad Bahrul Ulum
Perguruan Tinggi : Universitas Jember
Program Studi : Ilmu Hukum
Judul Penelitian : Penguatan Demokrasi Melalui Penataan Politik Hukum Pemilihan Kepala Daerah di Indonesia
Jumlah Halaman : xvii dan 105 halaman
Tahun Penulisan : 2011
Dosen Pembimbing : Prof. Dr. Tjuk Wirawan, S.H., Dr. Widodo Ekatjahjana, S.H., M.Hum. Read More